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The Church of Theophany on Gutuevsky Island
Saint-Petersburg is a World famous city. It is
famous for its history - “City of three revolutions”, for white nights,
drawbridges, for its architecture. Temples of Saint-Petersburg play a great
role both in history and architecture. One of the first buildings in the city
was Peter and Paul Cathedral. Most of Romanovs were buried here. After this,
Saint-Petersburg became the centre of Temple building.
The Saint-Petersburg temples represent the city as a
multicultural one and as the sample of tolerance. People of great number of
nationalities and religions lived here since its foundation.
The city changed greatly in the XX century. Because
of revolution and following Soviet rule, and also Grand Patriotic War, about
thrty churches have been destroyed, many were reconstructed. The main purpose
of my work is to restore the image of Saint-Petersburg of the beginning of the
XX century. The second main purpose is to represent the way of life in the
city, the attitude to churches, to religion. The events that lead to the ideas
of building a church or a temple seem interesting as well. And the last, but
not the least, - to get acquainted with pieces of architectural art, to show
the traditions of temple building in Saint-Petersburg. Different architectural
styles are represented in this work.
The temples below are not the most famous ones in
Saint-Petersburg. But they have very reach history and they are in the shade of
World famous St. Isaac’s Cathedral, Church of Resurection, Peter and Paul
Cathedral. The temples below are worth one’s attention.
The Buddist Temple
is a tall building on 91, Primorsky prospect. It attracts attention to its
proportions and symbolism. It impresses with its unusual forms, walls like
fortress ones, misterious symbols on the Eastern facade. The grey monolith of
its Nothern wall towers the three-storeyed rectangular building. The Southern
facade is decorated with a four-pillared portico. Granite facing, glazed bricks
and guilded components af decoration forms the unique image of the building. It
combines the elegant beauty of European modern style and severe beauty of Tibet
architecture. This is the Buddist Temple.
history of constructing the Temple in Saint-Petersburg is very complicated.
March, 16 in 1909 Agvan Dorghiev bought a ground area in “Old Village” in order
to erect there the Temple. But many organizations like “The Union of Russian
People”, bureaucrats were against of it. That goes without saying, The Russian
Orthodox Church was against too. But Dorghiev showed all his diplomatic skills,
and on the 30st of September, 1909 Nicolas II allowed the building of First
Buddist Temple in Saint-Petersburg. At the end of April the building started.
works were produced under control of a special building comitee, consisting of
the academicians V.V. Radlov, S.F. Oldenburg, prince A.A. Ukhtomsky, researches
of the Far East V.L. Kotvich, A.D. Rudnev, F.I. Scherbatsky, painters N.K.
Rerikh, V.P. Shnayder.
author of the very first project was an engeneer N.M. Berezovsky. Then G.V.
Baranovsky continued Berezovsky’s work . Agvan Dorghiev participated in this,
building works started under supervision of Baranovsky and they were procuced
very fast. In spite of it , they turned out to be organized unsucsessfully,
because the organizers had poor experience of such kind of work. Because of
financial problems, Dorzhiev was to employ very poor bricklayers from Kostroma.
They did not even know, what they were doing. Construction materials were
stolen frequently. Besides, some bills from purveyor organizations were not
paid in time. It all led to conflict between the architect Baranovsky and
Building Comitee. As a result, Baranovsky left this project, and N.K. Rerikh,
who projected a wooden Buddist Temple in Irkutsk uyezd, was invited.
only Temple in Russia that is equal to the samples of Tibet canon is
Saint-Petersburg Temple. The building of the temple is intended for daily
services, and at the same time, it is a place where lamas gather together and
hold the lessons.
main entrance opens on the South. In the Southern part of dugan there is the
principle room for clergy (Large Hall for Te Deum), that is illuminated through
overhead floor (“Sun flashlighter”). The Nothern part of Dugan - Gonkan is
considered to be the most sacred - here is the altar with sculpture of Big
Buddha. The throne of the principal lama is located opposite the altar. The
seats for common lamas are installed between the columns, along the Temple. All
the elements of the Buddist symbolysm were made in Tibet and fifted to Petrograd
Temple in 1915.
can see elements of European architecture, used here. The Eastern portotypes
were essentially reorientated in the European modern style. It is the lay-out
of the hall and stairwell. Central heating was installed in the Southern part
of the Temple because of the peculiarities of Nothern climate. Nothern modern
style was the reason to choose different sorts of coarsely-splitted granite,
facing brick, glazed tile for coating the building. It gave classical
Petersburg look. High-coloured stained-glass windows of plafond, the barrier of
light-embrasure, adorned with the symbols of Buddism, and also high-coloured
tile on the floor is also impact of modern style.
low spire (that has the same function as the at the Orthodox Church) from
guilded copper - Ganchzhirra (full of treasure, the Sanscrit language) looks
like a vase. It was traditionnaly installed on the roof of the Gonkan. In 1939
Ganchzhirra was dismantled. The figures of “Victorious Stndard” were installed
at the corners of the roofs. During the consecration they were filled-in with
the sacred texts. The roof of the portico was adorned with guilded eight-radius
“Weel of Studies” and two deers - symbols of the first Buddha’s sermon. Deer
and doe symbolyze beings of both sexes, who is heeding to the Teaching “with
clean heart of gentle deers”. Guilded disks and magic mirrors were installed in
the frieze of the Temple in order to frighten the evil forces away.
construction finished in 1913, and on the 21st of Febraury the first service,
devoted to three hundred years Jubilee of Romanovs family was held. But the
works dealing with the interior continued. A very famous wood-carver Rinchin
Zankhatov, painter Budaev and the expert on the Tibet culture GilYk-Chamzo
Tsybakov made a contribution to the Temple.
ceremonial consecration was held on the 10th of August, 1915.
Temple meant much for Buddism in Europe. The interest towards the valueables of
Buddism increased much. Many people were entirely interested in contacts with
live traditions of Gelugpa, which was represented by the lamas of Petrograd
1919 the first Buddist exhibition was held here. However, this year the Temple
was plundered in a very barbarous way. Almost all valueables were stolen -
guilded bronze, silver and copper statues, vases and cups, chinese brocade
draperies, furs… The statue of Big Buddha was broken, because the robbers were
looking for treasures. They also destroyed the library, and all the documents
dealinf with relationships with England, China, Tibet and Russia, that were
collected by Dorzhiev, dissapeared. But Dorzhiev showed remarkable will and
intellect anв managed to begin
restoration works, in spite of financial difficulties, caused by revolution.
1935, in Leningrad the persecution towards Buddism started. In Novenber, 1937
eighty-years old Dorzhiev was arrested. He died in January, at the prison in
Ulan-Ude. After that The Buddist Temple was closed, and different state offices
filled its building.
the World War II a broadcasting station was located in the former Temple. Metal
cable was used as the antenna - one end was hooked to a tractor, which was
situated at the backyard, and other was attached to a dirigible. Grenades were
produced in the cellar. At the same time it served as the lateral guidance
station for Soviet planes.. After that, until 1960, this radio station served
to interference induction on the Western radio channels.
the 25st of November, 1968 the building was declared to be a “memorial of local
meaning”. This fact, however, had no impact on the building. In the 1980-s the
city principlals decided to give it to the State Museum of the History of
Religion and Atheism. But it did not happen, as well.
July 1989 a group of twenty people asked for registration of Buddism Community.
Their application was allowed, and later, in 1990 the Building of the Buddist
Temple was returned to believers.
the Temple is open, but a lot of work should be done to restorate it.
Today Saint-Petersburg Cathedral Mosque
is one of the largest in Europe. It can recieve more than five million
believers, that is very important for Saint-Petersburg, where thousands of
conquest of the Middle Asia, forming the Great Cotton Route, which Russian
textile industry needed in, and growing interest to the Eastern culture
preceded the construction of the Mosque.
muslim community in Saint-Petersburg contained about eight thousand people, an
in November, 1905 believers had formed the building comitee, consisting of
twenty Moslems - merchants, military officers, publicians. Writer and
theologian A. Bayazitov the chairman of the comitee.
comitee bought a site at the corner of Kronverksy and Konny avenues. However,
this site turned out to be too small. The Michrab should be opened to Mekka,
e.g. to the South. It meant, to back facade of the neighbouring house. Besides,
the Mosques need a special building for ablution.
is why the building comitee decided to hold a competition for architects in
order to choose the best project. The conditions foк the competition were: to use the
Eastern style, to use only natural stones for facing, to construct the dome.
The 6mosque should contain one or two minarets. Following to the muslim
requirements, the Michrab should be opened to the South. Images of living being
were not allowed in the interior. In compliance with town-planning purposes
forming the “Red Line” for building-up, it was recommended to put the future
Mosque as close by the Kronverksky avenue, as possible.
Vasiliev won the competition. The Mosque was projected following in compliance
with the samples of Samarkand architecture. Characteristic feature of religious
buildings in the East is that the roof is “hidden” behind small parapets. In
Saint-Petersburg, because of its climate, it required a special approach to the
water collection system and the roof shape.
ceremony of laying was held on the 10st of Febraury, 1910. Later this year, in
May preparatory facing work, supervised by the German architect G.-F. Kann,
rented two mineral-field in Finland, where rare sorts of granite and light-grey
gneiss were mined.
the 21st of Febraury the first service, dedicated to the Jubilee of
Romanovs’ family was held, in spite of the building was not finished yet.
the Soviet rule the Mosque was damaged badly. In 1924-1928 the B9ig Carpet,
four bronze lamps, most of furniture were withdrawed or stolen. In 1930-s,
1950-s, 1970-s the unique construction of the roof was reconstructed many
times. The original system of water collection was re-made. Because of this,
the wall tectonics was badly modified. It led to the destroying of granite and
majolik incrustrations. In 1984 scaffolding was installed to replace the
facing. It was off in 1996, when unique granite and majolik facing was replaced
by technical porcelain. So, the look of the old building was changed, and now
it deffers greately from what Vasiliev had constructed.
Armenian Cathedral of Saint Catherine
First Armenian settlers in Saint-Petersburg appeared immediately after the
foundation of the city. Mostly, they were merchants and craftsmen. Started at
that time, Armenian community in Saint-Petersburg is still growing.
the 2nd of May, 1770 Catherine the Great solved a query of I.I.
Lazarev (1735-1801), who ask for a site for a church, and she gifted an area,
in the Nothern part of Nevsky avenue. The community started wrip-round.
project was prepared by famous architect Felten (1735 - 1801), and after eight-
year work the new well-propotioned church, opposite future Merchant Yard, was
graceful building was constructed in early Russian classicism. Buildings of
austere style outstand bright building of the church. The church takes central
place in the ansamble. It is crowned with the elegant dome. All the elements
were made proportionally and refindly. The facade is decorated with portico. On
its pediment one can see a sculpture relief. The plot is unusual: Katolikos
Grigor Enlighteneer is christening Trdat III ( Armenia was the first country,
that established Christianity as a state religion - in 301 Trdat III was
christened and ordered Grigor to christen the country)
and well-lighted interior attracts attention to the lines of the dome, curved
arches, columns. The interior is adorned with paintings, moulded cornices,
coulored marble. Felten and Khristinek are the authors of the interior.
18th Febraury, 1780 Ovsep Argutyan had consecrated the Cathedral of
Saint Catherine. In 1865 the bells were installed into the belfry.
are two houses belonging to the Church ansamble. Their facades are opened to
Nevsky Avenue. The Eastern Wing (42, Nevsky Avenue) was being built
simalteniously with the Cathedral. The author is Felten. It was finished in
1777, and the elergy of a parish was to be hold there. A two-storeyed building
of austere style sucsessfully completed Nevsky Avenue. In 1835 - 1837 the
building was re-built by A.I. Melnikov, who added the third floor to the building.
The second house (Western Wing) was built in 1794 - 1798. Most likely, the
architect was E.T. Sokolov. The facade of the Western wing is like the Eastern
one, but bas-relief was added to it.
houses have saved their interiors. Besides, they are samples of dwelling houses
of the end of the XVIII - the beginning of XIX centuries. These two buildings
form a cramped backyard, frame the church and do not distract one’s attention
from the church. Many famous people, such as great Russian poet Tyutchev and outstanding
polititian Speransky lived here.
the end af 1920-s the Cathedral was closed. It was then used as a storehouse,
offices, workshop. It was ravaged and damaged badly. During the Soviet rule the
church was devided into two storeys.
Cathedral was returned to the Armenian community in 1992. The restoration works
lasted eight years, and in 2000 the restored Cathedral was consecrated by Alexy
II and Armyan Garegin II.
the Cathedral is open for believers. A small exposition is going to be opened
in order to tell everybody about people, who dealt with the Cathedral, the
Cathedral itself, the history of Russian-Armenian relationships.
The Lutheran Church
After Peter the Great had
founded Saint-Petersburg, many Germans and Dutch moved here. They lived on the
Admiralty Island. It was often called “the German Sloboda”. They formed the
Lutheran parish. Firstly believers gathered in the house of the vice-admiral
Kornely Kruice (at that time it was where the Winter Palace is located now)
1719 the old building was not able to recieve all the believers, and services
were moved to a new Kruice’s house. It was situated at the corner of Nevsky
Avenue and Moyka embankment. But it was only temporary solution. The believers
decided to build a new stone Church. In order to wrip-round, customs for
incoming ships were increased till five roubles per ship.
1727 the Russian emperor Peter II gifted a big site on the Nevsky Avenue,
between Bol’shaya Konyushennaya and Malaya Konyushennaya Streets. The new
church of Saint Peter was built in 1730, and on the 14st of June it was
consecrated. Pastor Naccius lead the first service.
Russian emperors liked this church. Anna Ioannovna gifted it money for organ,
Catherine the Great gifted three thousand roubles, her son, Paul I - one
thousand. Even Nicolas I helped it.
church served about a century, until in 1832 the competition for the new
project was announced. A.P. Bryullov won it, and the new church was erected at
the same place, between two houses, which facades were opened to Nevsky Avenue.
The work was finished in 1838.
church was opened for century as well. In fact, it stopped services in
December, 1937. It was officially closed on the 2nd of March, 1938,
following to the order of the Soviet principals.
its closing, all the decorations that had a value were moved to the State
Hermitage. Much was stolen, by all means. The largest organ in the city, that
was made by “Walker” company dissapeared.
1958 Leningrad principals decided to invert the church into a swimming-pool.
led to reconstruction of the unique interior, death of painting remainders and
damaging the wall tectonics.
many years the believers had no church. Only in 1992 , on the 1st of
July Petrosovet issued a resolution about the church. According to this
resolution, the building should be delievered to the Lutheran community of
Saint-Petersburg. On the 31st of October pastors Frank Lotikhius and
Karl Kalnin led the service.
1992 the church was in a very bad condition. Russians and German specialists of
architecture elaborated a plan of the restoration works. According to this
plan, in the first stage of the work, an inserted floor should be installed
over the pool. It should prevent the walls from verticality deviation...
the 16th of September, 1997 the consecration of the church was made.
Nowdays it is the Lutheran Cathedral of Saint-Petersburg.
Cathedral of Sait Catherine
Catholic community contained many peoples - French , Italians, Polish and
others. The Catholic community was one of the biggest ones in Saint-Petersburg
at that time, and in 1738 it was gifted a site by the Russian empress Anna
Ioannovna. In 1739 P. A. Trezini prepared a project of the stone church and two
houses, which facades should be opened to Nevsky Avenue. This ansamble was
projected on baroque style. The Trezini’s project was not realized. But the
idea of connecting two houses with the church with help of two small arches was
used in the future project.
1761 - 1762 Vallin de la Moth prepared a new project. According to it, the
composition of the church was like a triumphal arch with a sculptural group at
the top and two belfries. The process started in 1763, but it was broken off
in the middle of 1760-s. In 1779 A. Rinaldi continued the work. He rejected the
sculpture and belfries and edited the facade - it became more austere. After
Rinaldi had left Russia, the work was finished by I. Minchaki.
building represents Latin cross. In the centre of the principal facade there is
a huge arch with two columns. The unity of the order and the wall, the
efficient lines are the showings of the early classicism. Curvilinear outlines
of window fingerplates and dynamic statues of the Evangelists are the showings
of baroque style. “Rinaldi’s flower” on the facade - “Rinaldi’s signature”
adornes the front of the building.
composit order pilasters form the indside space. The interior was worked on by
many painters and sculptor. The principal painter was D. Valeriani, the
principal sculptor, who made the rekief, - K. Albani. The organ hall was famous
for its acoustics. In 1897 the new mural was created by G.D. Grimm and new
stained-glass windows were installed by the Rigian masters.
last Polish king - Stanislav Avgust Ponyatovsky was buried here. In 1858 the
famous architect, the creator of Saint Isaac’s Cathedral, O. Monferrand was
read the burial service in this church.
Cathedral was closed in 1938. After that the direction of the museum of
Religion and Ateism History was based here. In 1970 the restoration work
started - in order to allocate aorgan philarmonic hall in this building. But in
1984 fire destroyed all the interior . The Cathedral was returned to
Roman-Catholic Religious Communion. Now the restoration is continued. The area
in the front of the building is often called Saint-Petersburg Mon - Martre
because it is a place, where the modern painters display and sale their
The church owes the icon
of the Holy Blessed Virgin its name. It was painted in the XII century and for
a long time was kept in one of the side-altars of Znamensky Church.
church was erected in 1794 - 1804 by architect F. I. Demertsov, who had constructed
Saint Sergius’ Cathedral on Liteiny Avenue before. The building was carried out
in classisism style.
elegant outline of the building, situated on Znamensky Square
(Nevsky Avenue), was crowned with five helmet-shaped domes. The central dome
was a little bit more thin and tall. The facades were incrustrated with dummy
was especially sucsessful Demertsov’s job. The space under the domes was
surrounded by the Corinthian order collanade. It outlined the central nave. The
colanade flew together with the very rich icon stand. Thus, Demertsov did not
break one of the main rules of the orthodox church building, ran risks by
increasing the size of the side domes, almost till the size of the central one.
The attempt was sucsessful.
1809 the cast-iron fenece was installed round the church. After that, two small
chapels were built nearby the church. They were located on the line of Nevsky
fortune of this church is even more tragical then many of other temples. That
goes without saying, it was closed after revolution. In 1940 it was destroyed.
After the World War II, on its former place the new pavilion of Ploshad’
Vosstaniya metro station was erected. Nowdays it is still functioning.
The Greek Church of Saint Demetrius Salona
Greek Church was built on the embankment of Ligovsky Canal (that was covered up
with earth later) between the 4th and the 5th Christmas
Streets (now - 4th and 5th Sovetskaya Streets).
of funds for the building were endowed by the Greek community in
Saint-Petersburg. But it was not enough, and then Greek merchant Dmitrius
Benardaki decided to build the church of his patron Saint with his own money.
Money, that were wripped-round by the community were gifted to the Russian
mission in Athens.
church was founded on the 25th of May, 1861. The architect was R.I.
Kuz’min. He represented the samples of early Byzantinesque architectural
Building was cross-shaped. The vast dome towered it. Nearby the Eastern facade
there were two additional buildings - for deacon and vestry. There was also a
thick vestibule . A flat pavilion of bell tower, that was built over it was
crowned with the pediment with the Cross.
windows make the inside space well-enlighted. The walls were faced with shining
ornaments - golden tracery on the silver background, or silver tracery on
high-coloured background. The nutwood icon stand consist of two stages. The
icons were created with oily paints on the golden-coloured background. They were
delievered from Greece. Many of them were very old. The wooden apsises were
fenced in metal balustrade. The floor was paved with white marble.
The church was consecrated in 1866. The services were held only in Greek
language. The first parishioneers were Greek buisnesmen, emigrants. Many of
them were sucsessful during the New Economic Policy.
January 1939 the church was closed and delievered to local functionaries. It
was destroyed in 1961. Several years later Large Concert October Hall was erected
here. Nowdays only poem of Iosif Brodsky and Greek avenue remind about the
Greek church and those Greeks who lived in this area.
The Church of Theophany on Gutuevsky Island
wonderful rescue of the Russian emperor Alexander III in October, 1888 after
the train crash lead to build gave a cause to build churches to commemorate
this event. Custom and port officers, who lived Gutuevsky Island were no
was decided to build a large wooden church at first. Engineer S.I. Andreev had
already prepared its project when a factory-owner I. A. Voronin made a hundred
thousand rouble donation in order to construct a stone church. After this a
young architect Vasily Kosyakov headed the construction work. It took him only
one month to prepare a new brilliant project.
Kosyakov’s project was the sample of golden age of “Russian style” in church
architecture of the end of XIX century. It kept the canon of the “ship” type
Orthodox Church. The building is elongated from West to East and consists of
vestibule, belfry, refectory, the principal altar with the chapel and two
symmetrically located altar-sides.
building was finished in 1897. On the 29th of April, 1899 it was
consecrated by metropolitan Antony and confessor Ioann Kronshtadsky.
church is well open from Obvodny canal, Ekateringofka river, nearby islands.
Sucsessful proportions of the main cupola and four small cupolas form an
expressive silhouette. The characteristic features of this type of buildings
are open wall brickwork with compass brick tracery, glazed tiles, majolica,
cornices. The entry is framed with coupled arches, elegant helmet-shaped dome
makes the building a piece of architectural art.
interior is rather wide and it decorated well. A low, one-deck faience icon
stand was made by a Moscow company of M.A. Kuznetsov. Its colour was
caontrasting with guilded bronze holy gates. The icons were painted by A. M.
Wall-paintings of Christ were painted by A. S. Slavtsov.
M. Budakov made the ornaments. The carving was made in P. S. Abrosimov’s
workshop: the author of outside mosaic was A. Frolov. In 1913 the altar was
adorned with marble and icons by Slavtsov. There was a two-deck gallery at the
Western wall. All the walls inside were filled with paintings.
1935 the church was closed. After the closing the building was occupied with a
vegetable store, soap factory, stores of “Frunzensky” department store. The
motor-transport depot located at the nearby area. During Soviet rule most of
the interior elements were lost - unique carpet paintings, pier paintings,
mosaics, fience icon stand, brickwork of altar-sides, church plate and other
details. During World War II the fire happened in the church. By the end of XX
century only reeky disfigured framework survived.
1992 the church was returned to believers. The first service was held on
January, 19. Since that moment the services are held regulary. After the church
return, the restoration work started. By the moment, interior, windows and
paintings have been restored partially. The helmet-shaped dome was re-guilded.
But the church lacks funding, and the work moves rather slowly.
temples of six different religions and streams were represented in the work. To
my mind, the work gives the insight of people who lived in the city. As it
turned out, there are thousands of people who are Buddhists, Moslem in Saint -
Petersburg - European city.
work also showes well different styles of architecture - classicism, baroque,
Byzantan and Russian style of church architecture.
my view, one can concieve the image of Saint - Petersburg, that has been
changed greatly - metro pavilion instead of Znamensky church, October hall
instead of the Greek church.
hope that my work helps to change the attitude to people of another religion
and nationality, to change the attitude to the memorials of architecture, that
Saint-Petersburg is famous for.
last, but not the least, the work gets one acquainted with the churches and
temples that have a reach and interesting history, but are not well-known among
the citizens and tourists. Some buildings, like the largest in Europe Buddhist
temple, or the Mosque can attract intourists’ attention in future.
Portico (page 3) - a kind of porch fronted with columns , often at the entrance
of a building - портик
Frieze (page 5) - that part of the entablature of a column which is between
the architrave and cornice - фриза
Minaret (page 7) - the slender, lofty turret or a tower, adjacent to a mosque,
usually with one or more balconies, used by a muzzin for summoning Moslems - минарет
Pediment (page 9) - a low triangular part resembling a gable, crowning the
front of the buildings - фронтон
Relief (page 9) - the projection of promunence of a figure above or beyond the
ground or plane - рельеф
Vestry (page 16) - a room in a church building where vestments and the
paraphernalia of worship are kept, a room used as a chapel or for meetings - ризница
Deacon - (page 16) - a lay church official or subordinate minister - дьякон
Vestibule (page 16) - a passage between outer door and the interior of a
building - притвор
Apsis, apse (page 16) - semicircular or rectangular projection - апсида
1. А.П. Павлов «Храмы Санкт-Петербурга»,
Санкт-Петербург, 1995 г, Лениздат
2. В.Г. Исаченко «Зодчие Санкт-Петербурга XIX - XX века» Санкт-Петербург, 1998, Лениздат
3. О.С. Хижняк «Религия и гражданское
общество: проблема толерантности», Санкт-Петербург, 2003, Санкт-Петербургское
6. Л. Базылев «Поляки в Петербурге»,
перевод Ю.Н. Беспятых, Санкт-Петербург, 2003, «Блиц»
7. Б.М. Кириков, Л.А. Кирикова, О.В. Петрова
«Невский Проспект», Москва - Санкт-Петербург, 2004 Центрполиграф МиМ Дельта
Пудовкина "Осколки Греции на берегах Невы", Санкт-Петербург, 1993,
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