The Capital of Our Country - Moscow
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Moscow is situated in the European part of
Russia. The area of Moscow is almost 900 square kilometer, if we talk only
about the area inside the “Moscow Circular Road”, which was constructed in 1961
and marked the borders of Moscow of those days. But there are already
many Moscow districts outside this border.
Moscow was called after the Moskva-river which flows round
the city. Now a channel connects the Moskva-river with the largest river in
Russia – Volga. There are also many small rivers and ponds in the city with
quiet and cozy parks on their banks.
The beauty, the hugeness and the importance of our capital
is a theme of numerous folk and modern poems and songs. And this is easy to
explain, because Moscow has been playing the leading role in the life of our
large country for many centuries.
There are many cities in the world which by the will of fate
became the capitals of modern states, the megapolises, gigantic urban areas
with millions of people living there. Moscow is one of them.
The year of 1147 is considered to be the date of the
foundation of Moscow, because an ancient document, where Moscow is mentioned
for the first time, dates back to this year. A small settlement grew very fast
and in the middle of the 14th century it occupied the area seven times bigger
than two centuries before.
During many wars and attacks of Tatar hordes Moscow was
destroyed and burnt to ashes together with the city. But every time it was
reconstructed and surrounded by walls, first wooden, later they were made of
stone. In the 14th century the first stone cathedrals were erected here.
From the very beginning Moscow developed according to the
radical-circular pattern. And later, when Moscow enlarged its borders further
and further, another walls appeared, which were built on the same principle –
with towers and gates on the crossings with the most important roads. And this
structure is represented now by the main thoroughfares of the city – the
Boulevard Ring and the Garden Ring as well as the Ring Line in the Moscow
In 1712 the capital was transferred to St. Petersburg, and
life in Moscow became very quiet without any important events. No big
construction happened here up to the 20th century. Only after the Revolution
Moscow got back the title of the capital of Russia (or of the USSR). Since that
time it was very much enlarged and surrounded by new rings, which were more
important for traffic. They are the so-called “third transport ring” (is being
consructed now, ca 40 km) and the “Moscow Circular Road”.
Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world. About
ten million people live in the city. The Russian capital is well-known all over
the world for its historical and architectural monuments. There is also a lot
of cinemas, clubs, concert halls, drama and musical theatres there. The Bolshoi
Theatre is a world-famous opera and ballet house. Citizens of Moscow are proud
of their museums and galleries. For examle at the Tretyakov Gallery you can
admire a lot of masterpieces painted by famous Russian artists, as well as
beautiful ancient Russian icons. And in the Museum of Fine Arts (or Pushkin
Museum) there are the enormous collection of the Western European sculpture and
Moscow is a scientific and educational centre of Russia.
There are lots of institutes, universities, libraries, laboratories and
schools. Moscow State University is attented by many young people from
different parts of our country and abroad. It was founded in 1755. Russian
scientist Lomonosov is considered to be the founder of the university. Today it
is the biggest university in Russia.
People who live in Moscow are fond of going in for sports,
and they also enjoy spending their week-ends in parks, forests and gardens.
There are lots of stadiums, swimming-pools, sport-grounds and courts. The
biggest stadium Luzhniki is a green park with many sports facilities. In 1980,
when Moscow was the host of the 22nd Summer Olympic Games the Olympic Village,
a lot of hotels and sport-grounds had been built.
Moscow is a very beautiful and interesting city. And I would
advised everybody to visit our capital.
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